As we move towards Brexit, there are three possible paths for local economic development, says Neil McInroy.
For many years the dominant approach has failed to build a local economy for all. Brexit makes the challenge harder and we need to take a huge step up.
Under the auspices of devolution, mainstream economic development has followed traditional lines around investment in hard infrastructure, civic boosterism, city centres, planning relaxation and post-19 skills. Overall it has slotted into and complied with the Treasury economic model – favouring agglomeration economics and narrow wealth concentration. As a result, mainstream economic development has been socially failing, and presided over growing economic imbalances.